12 absurd, but truthful facts about Chukchi that will surprise you
Have you ever wondered how the inhabitants of Chukotka live? What is their culture, customs, what do they love and how to contact with the outside world? It turns out that these people are very different from us, and the fact that they seem norm for them, we would have caused shock and misunderstanding!
Do not believe? Then see 12 truthful facts about Chukchi and their lives.
Sweat chukchi does not smell
Back in the 50s of the 20th century, if you believe the records of ethnographers, Chukchi lived literally in the mud, and there were more lice on them than any courtyard. Now representatives of the indigenous people of the North-East are already observing the rules of hygiene, but they have no need to use a deodorant, as it was not, and not to this day. The thing is that Pot Chukchi has no smell.
They possess a very good sense of smell
By the word about smells, it turns out that Chukchi have a very good sensitive sense of smell. Perhaps because sniffing each other often replaces hugs. For example, Father Chukchi, going to work, was applied to his nose to the sesses of his wife and children to draw the smell of their body and clothing. And during the years of wars between the koreas they, the latter only for one smell of bones managed to determine who they belong to: their own or strangers.
Chukchi change wives
Many are joking that Chukchi is the first "swingers", famous stories. In fact, it is. With the help of the exchange of wives, they fasten friendly bonds. This ritual is called "NGEVTUMGYN" (which means "friendship in his wife"), and the man coming to the exchange - NGEVTUMGYT. You can read more about this shocking for us to read in another material.
Chukchi do not save sinking people
What will you do if you see that the person sinks? Surely, you either call to the rescue, or throw it yourself to help, as a last resort, throw a discerning circle and wish it good luck. But Chukchi helps in any case will not. All because they believe that the strongest spirits are inhabited in the water, which themselves have the right to manage the fate of man. And to prevent the solutions of the spirits - it means to bring trouble on yourself.
Could change the floor at the venue of spirits
And again perfume! According to Chukchi, these supernatural creatures could have dura not only in water, but also in all other phenomena and objects. And they are capable of managing the behavior of people - for example, with no, neither with this man could feel the desire to change the floor and become a woman. To the "transformed" person treated with respect, because it was believed that he managed to achieve communications with spirits.
By the beginning of the 20th century, this custom was completely outlived.
Lived in the plagnes that transferred from place to place
Another custom that has long ceased to exist is a nomadic lifestyle among the peoples of the Far North-East. Once Chukchi settled in the plaggers - low tents made of leather, with ventilation holes that stuck in the fur. Chukchi-reindeer herders transferred these houses from place to seats - where their herd was sent. Surprisingly, in the very center of the plague was very warm and even hot - people could be in them naked.
Insensitivity to cold
It is possible that Chukchi live in conditions of extreme temperatures, and the cause of their excellent tolerance of the cold has caused. Here, small children without problems can play outdoors, and women even in a 30-degree frost go outside and engaged in sewage. And they make it so vigorously that it is often already for the middle of the process they have to discharge the upper clothes and fall asleep the snow behind the sinus - to cool.
Strange food habits
It's no secret that the kitchens of different peoples of the world have their own features: for example, the scandinavians love fading fish, and Asians go boiled duck eggs, in which the future fruit has already been formed. But, it turns out, Chukcham also has something to surprise! These people do not tolerate the salt, and soft bread seems to be sued with sour, but a hot chowder with a semi-earned moss, extracted from the stomach of a deer, is considered a delicacy here.
Chukchi still love fermented meat, porridge from sorrel, innovable fat, various roots and insides of animals. In general, if you are going to go to Chukotka, be prepared for culinary experiments.
Distinguished only 4 colors
Until the XX century, people of this northern people could distinguish only a few colors - white, black, red and gray. WINDOW ALL lack of color variety in their environment. Sometimes they saw a yellowish tint in the skin of deer, but all the other colors distinguished badly. Another color perception appeared in Chukchi after they were traded by the Russian language.
They have the first diapers
Local women used a rather unusual way to swadding infants, which is essentially a primitive prototype of modern diaper. In the overalls of mother infants placed a special "lining" from moss and deer fur, which well absorbed the products of life and simultaneously defended them from the cold.
Women during childbirth do not moan and do not ask for help
Chukcham women are forbidden to demonstrate their pain during the child's birth. On the contrary, the future mother should be worth it to stand this process, independently cut the umbilical cord, throw away the last and do everything for a newborn, not referring to help. If the spouse decides to help her, then for the rest of his life behind him, the glory of "obey" will be entrenched. Mother, who failed to cope with childbirth alone, will also roam and periodically remember it.
Give children strange names
Local children could give a wide variety of names from the phenomena of nature, ending with the names of things and animals. Sometimes the boy could be called "male genital organ", and there was nothing galloped in this - to the naked bodies and its separate parts of Chukchi treated perfectly calmly. Since they had only one (without name and surname), receiving passports, they recorded him as a surname, and the name and patronymic chose to their taste.
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Chukchi, Looravetlans, or Chukota, are the indigenous people of the extreme northeast of Asia. The genus Chukchi refers to the agnatnomous, which is united by the community of fire, the general sign of the Totem, the uniformity of the male line, religious rites and the birth. Chukchi are divided into deer (chasing) - tundra nomadic reindeer herders and seaside, coastal (Ankalyn) - sedentary hunters on marine animals, which often live together with Eskimos. There are both Chukchi dog breeders who bred dogs.
Yakuts, Euna and Russians from the 17th century began to call Chukchi Chukchi word Chauchu , or Chavchu which translated means "rich deer".
The people of Chukchi occupies a huge territory from the Arctic Ocean to the Anyu and Anadyr River and from the Bering Sea to the Entigir River. The bulk of the population lives in Chukotka and in the Chukotka Autonomous District.
Chukchi language in its origin belongs to the Chukotka-Kamchatka language family and is part of Paleoisian languages. Close relatives of the Chukchi language - Koryaksky, Kerek, who, by the end of the 20th century, disappeared, and the altitude. Typologically, Chukotka refers to incorporating languages.
An original ideographic writing was created in the 1930s by the Chukchi shepherd in the 1930s (although today it was not exactly proven whether a letter was an ideographic or verbal syllable. This writing, unfortunately, was not widely used. Chukchi since the 1930s Use the alphabet based on Cyrillic with the addition of several letters. Chukotka literature is mainly created in Russian.
Previously, Chukchi's name consisted of a nickname that the child was given on the 5th day of life. The name gave the child a mother that could convey this right to respected by all the person. It was common to carry out fortune telling on a suspended subject, with the help of which the name for the newborn was determined. The mother took some subject and in turn called names. If, when pronouncing the name, the subject moves, they called them.
Names from Chukchi are divided into women's and men, sometimes after the end. For example, the name of the female tune-nna and the name of Male Tune-Nkey. Sometimes Chukchi to introduce evil spirits misleading, called the male name the girl, and the boy is a female name. Sometimes with the same goal they gave several names.
Names mean the beast, the time of year or day, in which the child was born, the place where he was born. The names associated with the items of everyday life are distributed. For example, the name Gitinet is translated "Beauty".
In 2002, another All-Russian population census was held, according to the results of which the number of Chukchi was 15767 people. After the All-Russian population census in 2010, the number was 15908 people.
The average life expectancy of Chukchi Mala. Those who live in natural conditions live up to 42-45 years. The main causes of high mortality are alcohol abuse, smoking and poor nutrition. To date, drugs joined these problems. There are very few long-livers on Chukotka, about 200 people aged 75 years. The birth rate is falling, and all this in the aggregate, unfortunately, can lead to the extinction of the people of Chukchi.
Chukchi belongs to the mixed type, which is generally Mongoloid, but with differences. The eye cut is more often horizontal than oblique, the face of the bronze shade, the cheekbones are slightly wide. Meets among Chukchi men with thick vegetation on the face and almost curly hair. Among women, the Mongolian type of appearance is more common, with a wide nose and cheekbones.
Women collect hair into two braids on both sides of the head and decorate their buttons or beads. Married women sometimes release front strands on the forehead. Men are often very smoothly cutting their hair, leave a wide fringe at the front, there are two beams of hair in the form of the ears of the beast.
Chukchi clothing is sewn from the fur of a grudge autumn calf (cub deer). In everyday life, adult clothing Chukchi consists of the following elements:
- Double fur shubah
- Double fur pants
- Short fur stockings
- Fur low boots
- Double cap in the form of a female cape
Winter clothing of the Chukotka Men consists of a caftana, which is characterized by good practicality. The fur shirt is also called Iryn, or a dice. It is very wide, with spacious sleeves, narrowing in the area of the brushes. Such a cut allows Chukch to pull the hands from the sleeves and put them on the chest, to make a comfortable body position. Shepherds sleeping at her herd in winter, hide in a shirt with head and closed the opening of the collar with a hat. But such a shirt is not long, but to the knees. Long dumps wear only old men. The collar of the shirt is cut low and sheeps, the lace is lowered inside. Bottom, the pecble is pubes with a thin line of dog fur, which young chukchi replaces wolmicly fur or otter. The jewelry on the back and sleeves of the shirt are sewn of Penakalgyna - long brushes, painted in Punchy color, made of pieces of young seals. This decoration is more traveled for women's wares.
Women's clothing is also peculiar, but differs in irrationality and consists of one-piece crosslinking double pants with a low-cut corsage, which is tightened in the waist area. Corsage in the chest area there is a cut, the sleeves are very broad. During work, women release hands from the corsage and work on the frost with bare hands or shoulders. Old women put on the neck shawl or strip of deer skins.
In the summer, as the upper clothes, women wear balachons, stitched from the deer suede or purchased motley color, and the kneaking of their wool deer with a subtle fur, embroidered various ritual stripes.
Chukchi hat is sewn from the fur of the fawn and calf, wolmicly paws, dogs and otters. In winter, if you have to go on the road, a very large hood is worn over the caps, stitched mainly from the fur of the wolf. Moreover, the skin is taken with her head and hopping ears, which are decorated with red ribbons. Such hoods are mostly women and old men. Young shepherds wear even instead of the usual hat headdress, covered only forehead and ears. Men and women wear mittens who sew from Camus.
All internal clothing is put on the body of the fur inside, the upper dress is outside. Thus, both types of clothing firmly adjacent to each other and form impenetrable protection against frost. The clothes made of deer skins are soft and does not cause much discomfort, we can wear it without lingerie. Elegant clothing of deer chukchi white, near the seaside chukchi, it is a dark brown shade with white rare stains. Traditionally, clothes are decorated with stripes. Original patterns on Chukchi's clothes have an Eskimo origin.
Chukchi's jewelry are garters, necklaces in the form of straps with beads and dressings. Most of them have a religious value. There are real metal decorations, various earrings and bracelets.
Breast children dressed in bags of deer skin, with deaf branching for legs and hands. Instead of diapers used to use moss with deer wool, which served as a diaper. The valve is fastened to the bag opening, from which daily removed such a diaper and changed to clean.
Chukchi are emotional and psychologically very accurately affordable people, which often leads to a frencher, tendency to suicide and murder, even at the slightest reason. This people love independence and persistent in the fight. But at the same time Chukchi is very hospitable and good-natured, always ready to come to the help of neighbors. In times of the hunger strike, they helped even Russians, brought them food.
Chukchi in their beliefs are animists. They doomize and personify the phenomena of nature and its area, water, fire, forest, animals: deer, bear and crows, celestial bodies: the moon, sun and stars. They believe Chukchi and in evil spirits, believe that they are satisfied with the land of disasters, death and illness. Chukchi wear amulets and believe in their power. The creator of the world, they considered a crow named Kurkıl, who created everything on Earth and taught all the people. All that is in space created northern animals.
Each family has its own family shrines:
- Healthy projectile for the extraction of sacred fire by friction and used on holidays. Each family member has its own projectile, and the figure with the head of the fire owner was carved on the bottom plank;
- family tambourine;
- Bundles of wooden bitch "Estractions of nonsense";
- Dores with images of ancestors.
By the beginning of the 20th century, many Chukchi were baptized in the Russian Orthodox Church, but there are still people with traditional beliefs in the Russian Orthodox Church.
Chukchi has regular holidays, which are conducted depending on the time of year:
- In the fall - the day of slaughter of deer;
- In the spring - the day of the horns;
- In winter - the sacrifice of the star Altair.
Also a lot of irregular holidays, such as feeding fire, a commemoration of the dead, general ministry and sacrifice after hunting, a holiday of China, a kayak holiday.
Chukchi believed that they had 5 lives, and were not afraid of death. After death, many wanted to get into the world of ancestors. To do this, it was necessary to die in battle from the hand of the enemy or from the hand of a friend. Therefore, when one Chukchi asked for another to kill him, he immediately agreed. After all, it was a kind of help.
The dead faded, fed and guess over them, forcing them to answer questions. Then they burned, either relate to the field, cut the throat and the chest, pulled out part of the liver and hearts, turned the body into thin layers of deer meat and left. The old men often killed themselves in advance or asked about this close relatives. Chukchi's voluntary death came not only because of old age. Often, the reason was heavy living conditions, lack of food and severe, incurable disease.
As for marriage, it is predominantly endogan, in the family in a man could be 2 or 3 wives. In a certain circle of twin and relatives, mutual use of wives by agreement is allowed. Chukchi adopted to observe Levirat - the custom of a marriage character in which the wife, after the death of her husband, had the right or was obliged to marry with someone from his close relatives. They did it because the woman without her husband was very hard, especially if she had children. A man who married widow was obliged to adopt all her children.
Often Chukchi stole his wife for her son from another family. The relatives of this girl could demand to give them a woman in return, and not in order to marry her, but because in everyday life they always needed workers hands.
Almost all families in Chukotka are large. Pregnant woman was not allowed to rest. Along with others, they worked and engaged in life, Moss was harvested. This raw material is very necessary during childbirth, he was cast in Yarange, on the place where a woman was preparing to give birth. Chukotka women could not help during childbirth. Chukchi believed that everything resolves a deity, which knows the souls of the living and the dead and decides which of them to send the girlfriend.
Screaming during childbirth a woman should not not attract evil spirits. When the child was born, the mother herself tied up with a bunch of thread, woven from his hair and the tendon of the animal, and cut it. If a woman could not give birth for a long time, she could help, because it was obvious that she herself could not cope. It was ordained by one of the relatives, but after that everyone treated the guinea and her husband with contempt.
After the birth of the child, the skins were wiping, which was wetted in the mother's urine. Overhead bracelets put on his left hand and leg. The baby dressed in fur overalls.
After childbirth, it was impossible to eat fish and meat, only meat broth. Previously, Chukotka women fed the children with breasts up to 4 years. If the mother did not have milk, the child was drunk with fat seal. The baby's dummy was made of a sideline of a sea hare. She was stuck finely chopped meat. In some villages, babies were breeded by their dog's milk.
When the boy was 6 years old, the men began to raise him as a warrior. The child was accustomed to hard conditions, taught shooting out of Luke, quickly run, quickly wake up and responding to outside sounds, treated visual sharpness. Modern children Chukchi love to play football. The ball makes them from the wool of a deer. They have an extremal struggle on ice or slippery shine.
Men Chukchi are excellent warriors. For each success in battle, they applied a tattoo on the back of the right palm. The more labels were, the more experienced the warrior was considered. Women had always had cold weapons in case the enemies attack.
Mythology and folklore chukchi are very diverse, they have a lot in common with the folklore and the mythology of Paleoaziats and American peoples. Chukchi has long been famous for their carved and sculptural images made on mammoth bones that are affected by their beauty and clarity of application. Traditional musical instruments of the people are Tuben (Yarar) and Vargan (Homus).
People's oral creativity of Chukchi richly. The main genres of folklore are fairy tales, myths, lesions, historical legends and household stories. One of the main characters is Raven Kurkyl, there are legends about wars with Eskimo neighboring tribes.
Although the living conditions of Chukchi were very heavy, they found time for holidays in which the tambourine was a musical instrument. Tunes indulged from generation to generation.
Dance Chukchi are divided into several varieties:
- ritual ritual
- Dancing insignment or pantomime
- Dancing deer and coastal chukchi
Immissory dances were very common, which reflect the behavior of birds and animals:
- Flying crane
- Running deer
- Dance Gull
- Dance dance
- bull fight during gon
- Looking out
Special place was occupied by shopping dances, which were a type of group marriage. They were an indicator of strengthening previous related bonds or were held as a sign of a new relationship between families.
Traditional chukchi dishes are prepared from deer meat and fish. The base of the nutrition of this people is boiled whale meat, seal or deer. Meat is used in food and in damp-frozen form, Chukchi eating the insides of animals and blood.
Chukchi eat mollusks and vegetable food:
- bark and leaves willow
- Sea cabbage
From the drinks, representatives of the people prefer alcohol and grasses from herbs, similar to tea. Not indifferent Chukchi to tobacco.
In the traditional cuisine of the people there is a kind of dish called the monitor. This is a semi-earned moss, which is extracted from the stomach of a deer after killing an animal. The coal is used when preparing fresh dishes and canned food. The most common until the 20th century was a hot dish of Chukchi had a liquid chowder from the coal with blood, fat and crushed meat.
Chukchi originally hunted on the reindeer, gradually they domesticated these animals and began to engage in reindeer herding. Deer give chukcham meat for food, skin for housing and clothes, are transport for them. Chukchi, who live off the coast of rivers and seas, are engaged in hunting for marine inhabitants. In the spring and winter they catch seals and Nerpen, in the fall and summer - whales and walrus. Earlier, Garpuna with a float, belt networks and spear were used to hunt Chukchi, but in the 20th century they learned to use firearms. To date, only a bird hunting is preserved with the help of "Bol". Fisheries is not developed in all Chukchi. Women with children collect edible plants, moss and berries.
Chukchi in the 19th century lived with overbounds in which 2 or 3 houses were included. When the food for deer ended, they nomaded to another place. In summer, some lived closer to the sea.
The tools of labor were made of wood and stone, gradually replaced them with iron. In everyday life of Chukchi, axes, spears, knives are widely used. Utensils, metal boilers and kettles, weapons today are mainly used European. But to this day, in everyday life of this nation there are many elements of primitive culture: these are bone shovels, drills, hoes, stone and bone arrows, tips for copies, shells from iron plates and leather, complex onions made from bones of the patrity, stone hammers, Skin, stem, shells for fire production by friction, lamps in the form of a flat vessel round shape made of soft stone, which filled with fat seal.
Light Sani Chukchi is also preserved in primitive form, they are equipped with backups of the arcuate form. Pack in them deer or dogs. Chukchi, who lived by the sea, for hunting and movement on the water has long been used by kayaks.
The arrival of Soviet power affected the life of settlements. Over time, schools, cultural institutions and hospitals appeared in them. Today, the literacy rate of Chukchi in the country is at the middle level.
Chukchi live in housing, called Yarangi. This is a tent of large sizes, irregular polygonal shape. Touch Yaranga by the spur of deer in such a way that the fur was outside. The housing arch is based on 3 poles, which are located in the center. Stones are tied to the cover and pillars of the slag, which ensures resistance to the wind. From the floor, Yaranga is tightly close. Inside the slag, the fire is located in the middle, which is surrounded by a sleigh loaded by various accessories for the farm. In Yaranga, Chukchi live, eat and drink, sleep. Such a dwelling is well warmed, so the inhabitants go in it. Chukchi is heated their housing with a fat lamp of clay, wood or stone, where and cook food. The seaside Chukchi Yaranga differs from the housing of the reindeer herds by the fact that it does not have a flue hole.
Despite the fact that Chukchi is the people of distant from civilization, among them there are those who have become known to the people, thanks to their achievements and talents. The first Chukchi researcher Nikolay Daurkin is Chukchi. He received his name when baptized. Daurkin was one of the first Russian subjects, which landed on Alaska, made several important geographical discoveries of the 18th century, the first made a detailed map of Chukotka and received the noble title for his contribution to science. The name of this outstanding person was called the peninsula on Chukotka.
Candidate of philological sciences Peter Inenlikia was also born in Chukotka. He studied the peoples of the North and their culture, is the author of books on research in the field of linguistic languages of the Northern Peoples of Russia, Alaska and Canada.
Eskimos, deer, plague - so about we imagine Chukotka. And in vain, because there are already few people moving on deer there, Eskimos are only one of the many peoples of this land, and they do not live in the plagots.
And we learned how the temperature was determined on Chukotka without a thermometer, "you also recognize this at the end of the article.
"I'll start with the fact that the north can take a person or push off from ourselves. I think all northerners will confirm. The person who does not like here will not stay for a long time - a time-tested fact. The one who will take, love the region forever. We say here: "North attracts". "
If you are not a high-class specialist and the employer itself does not invite you, come to the extreme north to work very difficult. Companies need competent people with experience in the specialty (and this is most often mining or forestry), physically and morally prepared for difficult northern conditions.
One of the popular tourist destinations here is a whale alley, on which magical rites were held several hundred years ago. Despite the romantic name, the alley looks pretty bloodthirsty: half a kilometer of giant whale bones.
Locals, whose houses are located near the whale alleys, say that hundreds of years ago this place was a shaman for the competition of shamans who knew how to fly. Ritual rites were conducted on the territory of Alley about 200 years in a row. In the 16th century, the strongest frosts began here, because of which the tribes stopped visiting the sacred once place, which as a result went to the shadow for many years. However, today, the whale alley has become one of the most popular places for travelers from around the world, chasing mystics.
The whale alley did not always have such mad popular as in our time. This place, sacred for Eskimos, located on the island of Itygor, was discovered relatively recently, in the 70s of the last century, scientists who were supervised by Mikhail Anatolyevich members, Russian ethnographer.
The alley consists of two rows of the bones of the Greenland whales, which are half immersed in the ground. The first series of 500 meters - bones, and the second row - numerous skulls of whales that reach huge sizes: the length of each varies from two to three meters wide. The archaeological complex is located on the coast, with the "construction" of the alleys used the remains of about 60-70 adult whale individuals. It is amazing that under the layer of pebbles, which lies between the rows, there is a huge number of other whale bones, which means that the alley is discovered even more.
Now any tourist who wants to see this mystical place can arrange a ticket, the program of which will include a route trip through the whale alley.
Although Chukotka and the US are nearby, to get from one point to another extremely difficult. Therefore, if the Chukchi residents will have a desire to fly to America, it will be easier for him from Moscow: that is, to get through the whole country and, if possible, with a check in Vladivostok (the point of issuing a visa is closest to the Chukotka Autonomous District).
And on Chukotka there is an extreme eastern point of Russia - the island of Ratmanova. But no one lives there.
Get out of Anadyr, the capital of the Autonomous Okrug, to the airport - a fascinating adventure: for this you need to cross the bay. In the summer it can be done on a boat or barge, in spring and autumn - on a helicopter. In winter, everything is easier: traditionally the bay is moving in thick ice.
Chukotka is the only place in Russia, where men are more than women. This is due to the fact that the region from the whole country goes to earnings, and most of the proposed professions are traditionally male.
Vegetables and fruits are very expensive here due to the high delivery cost. Often in stores, people ask them from the seller Plyukovo: for example 3 potatoes for soup.
With eggs, and other products from a big land is the same story. Moreover, unfortunately, to the destination products often reach the already spoiled.
Another difficulty with buying products: Many shops work with dining breaks and only until 8 pm.
The Internet is here too expensive: you have to pay 2 rubles per megabyte. That is, watching the movie Online will cost about 3 thousand rubles.
But the city is pleasing to residents with free public transport, and villages are free children's kinders. In addition, there are no queues in them. As a rule, if a family with a small child comes to Chukotka, he is immediately credited to the kindergarten group.
According to the Chukotka streets, it happens, ragged bears, therefore the inhabitants themselves are recommended particularly not to go. By the way, the local know: from the bears it is impossible to run away and even more so shouting at them when you meet - you can scare the beast of hiss.
During the White Nights - from the end of May to June - the sun shines almost around the clock, only a couple of hours hiding behind the horizon. Therefore, at the weekend, quite a lot of people walk through the so-called nights, more like the early evening we are familiar.
And the polar night is famous for the Northern Lights. However, in some it does not cause such admiration, like visits: for indigenous people, this is common.
On Chukotka eat canned meat from China. They are useful: the product is rich in protein, vitamins and phosphorus.
One of the most recognizable symbols of Chukotka - Pelicen, the keeper of the home hearth. According to legend, he eats a human envy, anger, problems and bad thoughts, digest them in his huge stomach and radiates in return for good and happiness. In the village of Lavrentievo, a monument to Peliken was installed, and, they say, if you rub it a navel, you can become lucky and invulnerable to evil forces.
Relatively recently, the inhabitants of Chukotka moved from the reindeer strokes to personal cars. But before that, the cities were the traffic police officers who, in order to somehow work, were stopped for about the order.
But it is even more convenient to move on a dog harness. Dogs are more enduring and can quietly go there, where the deers are falling into the snow. For the harm, they are trained from early age: for example, we are learning from hunting instincts.
There is such a dangerous phenomenon like Yazach - a sudden wind, the strong impulses of which demolish the snow from the ground and can even destroy home.
Sometimes in cities, there are such shelters that you have to break through the real tunnel to get out of the house.
Some indigenous Chukchi peoples live in Yarangah - dwellings from wooden poles and animal skins - and not at all in the plagots, as we used to hear in jokes.
In Chukchi in the go, a twenty number system instead of usual to us. It is based on the score on the fingers, which used to be convenient for trading. So, the words "five" and "ten" in the Chukchi language are formed from the word "hand", and "twenty" has the same root as the word "man."
Here are the customs of the ancestors: in many homes you can see the inherited tribal masses and chambers. And the smallest people living here are eager to convey their languages to the younger generation.
Chukchi has a tradition at birth not only to give the name to the child, but also to write a song for him.
Bonus: Chukotka Temperature Determination Method
If there is no thermometer in the house, some use this proven generation to determine the temperature. Every morning to wake up and look out the window: if it snow is warm, if there is no snow - it's cold, if the fog is very cold on the street, below minus 40 ° С, while the stronger the fog is the colder. © At the most extreme point of being / Telegram
Did you have to be in the extreme north? Would you stay there live there?a source
The real territory, which Oleg Kuvayev wrote in his novel of the same name is here. She is without a width of a papusal plaque of civilization, an open, harsh, checking you on strength every day and every hour, breathtaking your heart once and for all, forcing you to think about her and wait for the return here again and again ...
Somewhere in the depths of Chukotka, on the border of Yakutia, Kamchatka and Kolyma lost the difficult and wild edge, hundreds of years inhabited by small indigenous northern peoples - euments, chukchi, koryaks, yukagira and eskios.
Places are as hard to reach and rigid for life, as far as beautiful and exciting perfume.
The edge of the harsh frosts most of the year, and the all living things stretching - midges and mosquitoes, in a short northern summer.
There are also extended difficulty mountain ranges with tops up to 2000 meters, and mountain valleys are rich in vegetation, and stormy cold northern rivers sandwiched between the clips of the mountain ranges.
It was here that hundreds of years of Even and Chukchi were engaged in reindeer herding, growing their numerous herds of a home deer, distilling him from winter pastures on summer and back.
But this time I want to tell you about one amazing meeting with Chukchi - reindeer breeders, a big family from the once big brigade of the largest reindeer collector of Chukotka, with the conversation that followed this meeting, about life and the life of the indigenous population.
We were in these parts almost by chance, having decided to return from Chukotka to the mainland, not through the already familiar winterer "Arctic", and through the Olone, which is located on the border of Chukotka, Yakutia, Kamchatka and Kolyma, well, and then on "wilderness" 450 - kilometer Zimnik on Magadan.
Having overcome the solar ridges of Chukotka in the winterer, through deserted mountain valleys, passes, numerous swamps, we got to the left village of Slaby.
In Soviet times, there was a meteorological station and a passage-base of one of the departments of the reindeer collective farm "Olon". And before the beginning of the last century there was a parking of Evenovodovodov on the River Oloa.
In general, the Olya River is an important river in the life of the indigenous population of this area. Along it, the numerous summer pastures of deer are located, and on one of her tributaries, the cake of Chukchi reindeer breeders was located above in the flow - Kayttyn.
In the ulyashka, in the former house of the meteorological station, they suddenly met the elderly family Chukch and a lonely old man who returned here for a hundred kilometers from Olon to their native river.
And after a cup of tea, there are several hours in conversations about the history of these places, about the former glory of the largest Chukotka reindeer collective farm "Olon", which led its activities in these parts, about the life and lives of modern Chukch and Evenov.
The history of the collective farm is simple and complex at the same time. With the arrival of Soviet power, the Bolsheviks convinced the elders of the community to join the collective farms and collective reindeer herbal farms were formed on the camp of Evenov and Chukch. By the mid-1950s, they were combined into one large collective farm "Owlon" with a base in Olon, pass-bases in the valley of Olya in the field of perennial core.
In peak years, the population of deer was more than 35,000 heads, and the collective farm consisted of 15 brigades. It was the largest collective farm in Chukotka, wrote about him in the newspapers, he was awarded medals with medals of the VDNH. But everything has already been left in the past, far and Soviet.
Now the community of reindeer herders is hardly gained several thousand deer, the rest were scored on meat back in the 90s, and a part of the home deer was taken away by a deer - "savage", which restored his population in the 90s. This is a real enemy of reindeer herders, whom they are mercilessly exterminated. If the flock is per savage - it is no longer returning. Sawn causes even more damage than wolf.
All year round, the community nimbles with a herd between winter and summer pastures, hundreds of kilometers between parking. In the summer higher in the mountains, in the winter descend in Festourprot. The whole connection with their old Soviet KV radio stations with dynamo-machine, as well as dozens of years ago.
But there are some attributes of civilization - satellite dish and a small TV with a Soviet generator whose age is 30-40 years old.
But at the time being, through interference and noise, the community of reindeer breeders is going to communicate, they are going to get to the stuff after 1-2 days. This is an excellent news - the core right on our way and we can have time to catch the community of reindeer breeders, from the former collective farm brigade in the parking lot in a collapse of the kilometers from the stuff. We were very lucky, just from February, the distance between the livestock on the summer pastures begins.
The community cares slowly, with a large number of multi-day stops. At the same time, the meat is harvested, the skins and the tents and tents are released, the broken narts and kibits are restored.
For life in a brigade - the community uses not familiar big yarants, and old tarpaulin army tents.
In the community, usually several tents - Yarang, in each of them live from one to several families.
But the way of life inside the tents is not much different from the usual device of Yarangi - about which he was able to read and hear before.
Color from the skins of deer, the hearth - burzhuyka, the table, place to store things. Children are still dressed in the national clothes from deer skins, but adults have already joined the light industry products.
Now the brigade cares together with women and children. Children play on deer skins lay on Earth, and adults are sitting around the table.
Although in Soviet times, into bending a collective farm, children lived in the boarding school and the parents did not see six months, while those were on remote overhead.
To move along the tundra in the sanitary path, as hundreds of years ago, deers are used, harvested in a variety of narts.
Narts are different types: for transportation of people, cargo, children, dishes and other things.
But unlike the Nenets and Dolgan living in the tundra, it is much more difficult to move here. High and indevertient mountain ranges, Fierotundra and a large number of mountain rivers require a special relationship and approach to the manufacture of Olenih Nart. Yes, and they fail, they are much more often. Therefore, at the time of long standings, there will always be something to do.
To transport children in such harsh conditions, Chukchi has special narts - kibits, warm and convenient for long transitions between parking.
Deer - for the community it's all. In a word - all life.
Transport. Packaging. Food. Warmly. Clothing. Product.
Everything is connected with them, and the whole life passes in close contact with nature.
At the time of parking, the herd grandsys in some distance from the overhead. I have a little search for the distinguished deer. The shepherds have a major concern, prevent the appearance of a deer - savage near herd. And the savage was divorced a lot and he is no longer buggy, hardy and is able to easily lead a homely herd.
But there is one trouble-free way to attract a deer to a stranger - feed it with salt. It acts the trouble-free and deer literally literally line up, linking with their bells, as if the burenks in the North Caucasus.
But in the modern world, even small indigenous people need money. Buy fuel, products, equipment and a lot more. Therefore, the economy is here simple, annual kindness of venison and wholesale its sale. Olenine slaughter season - Late autumn and winter. This is the best time to bottom, as the meat does not deteriorate and it can be massively passing to numerous artels for good money. Previously, the time of collective farms was the planned economy and sales was centralized - now more difficult. So the reindeer herds of the opening of winter people are waiting when merchants will go buy goods ...
But the community is going - tomorrow again on the road, the next day of their ordinary life, which their ancestors lived hundreds of years ago, and which they live already in the XXI century.
The northernmost area of the Far East is the Chukotka Autonomous District. There are several indigenous peoples on its territory who came to the Millennium back. Most of all in Chukchotka Chukchi themselves - about 15 thousand. For a long time they were nomaded around the peninsula, grazed deer, hunted whales and lived in Yarangi.
Now many reindeer herds and hunters have become workers in housing and utilities, and Yarangi and kayaks changed to ordinary houses with heating.
Cucumbers 600 rubles per kilogram and a dozen eggs for 200 are modern consumer realities of remote areas of Chukotka. Full production is closed, as it did not fit into capitalism, and the extraction of venison, although it is still coming by the state - the meat derecy cannot compete even with an expensive beef, which is brought from the "Big Earth". Similar history - with the repair of a residential foundation: construction companies are unprofitable for repair contracts, since the lion's share of estimates is the cost of transporting materials and off-road workers. The youth, leaving from the village, and serious health problems - the Soviet system collapsed, and the new sense was not created.
Chukchi ancestors appeared in the tundra before our era. Presumably, they came from the territory of Kamchatka and the current Magadan region, then moved through the Chukotka Peninsula towards Bering Strait and stopped there.
Faced with Eskimos, Chukchi adopted their Morzoratel fishery, subsequently pusing them from the Chukotka Peninsula. Over the turn of the millennia Chukchi learned from the nomads of the Tungus group - Evenov and Yukagirov.
"Now getting into the cowweights of Chukotka reindeer belodes is not easier than in the time of the Tana of the Bograz (the famous Russian ethnographer, which at the beginning of the 20th century described the life of Chukchi).
In Anadyr, and then to the national settlements you can fly by plane. But then it's very difficult to get from the village to the specific reindeer breeding brigade at the right time, "explains Puya. Overlodes' cowards are constantly moving, and long distances. Roads to get to the places of their parking there are no: moving around the tracked all-terrain vehicles or snowmates, sometimes on deer and dog sledding. In addition, reindeer herders strictly observe the duration of the swinging, the time of their rituals and holidays.
The hereditary Olenevode Puya insists that reindeer herding is a "business card" of the region and the indigenous people. But now Chukchi basically lives as before: crashers and traditions go to the background, and the typical life of remote regions of Russia comes to replace them.
"Our culture suffered greatly in the 70s, when the authorities considered that in each village it is expensive to support middle schools with a complete set of teachers," says Puya. - In district centers, built boarding schools. They were counted not to urban institutions, but to rural - in rural schools salaries are twice as high. I myself studied at such a school, the quality of education was very high. But the children were leaning from life in Tundra and Primorye: We were returned home only on the summer holidays. And therefore lost integrated, cultural development. There was no national education in the boarding school, even Chukchi did not always be taught. Apparently, the authorities decided that Chukchi - Soviet people, and our culture we know for nothing. "
Life of deerrevodov
The geography of Chukchi accommodation first depended on the movement of wild deer. People winterized in the south of Chukotka, and in the summer they left the heat and gnus to the north, to the shores of the Ice Ocean. The people of reindeer herders lived by the generic system. They settled on lakes and rivers. Chukchi dwells in Yarangi. Winter Yaranga, which was sewed from deer skins, stretched on a frame of wood. Snow from under her was cleaned up to the ground. The floor was covered with branches, which were laid in two layers. An iron stove with a pipe was installed in the corner. We slept in tune in the cules of animal skins.
But the Soviet power that came to Chukotka in the 30s of the last century was dissatisfied with the "uncontrolled" movement of people. The indigenous people indicated where to build a new one - semi-stationary - dwelling. This was done for the convenience of cargo transportation by sea. In the same way, they also came with overbursts. At the same time, new jobs have arisen for indigenous people, and hospitals, schools, cultural houses appeared in settlements. Chukchi taught writing. And the reindeer herders themselves lived almost better than all other Chukchi - until the 80s of the 20th century.
Now the inhabitants of Konergino send letters to the mail, buy in two stores ("Nord" and "Katyusha"), call "on the mainland" from the only village of inpatient phone, sometimes go to the local club of culture, use the medical ambulatory. However, residential houses of the village are in emergency condition and capital repairs are not subject to. "Firstly, we do not allocate money a lot, secondly, due to the complex transport scheme, it is difficult to deliver materials to the village," said the head of the settlement Alexander Soilnikov several years ago. According to him, if earlier the hills in Konergino repaired public utilities, now they have neither building materials or labor. "To deliver building materials to the village is expensive, the contractor spends about half of the allocated funds on transportation costs. Builders refuse, they are unprofitable to work with us, "he complained.
About 330 people live in Konergin. Of these, about 70 children: most learn at school. In housing and communal services, fifty locals, and at school - along with a kindergarten - are busy 20 educators, teachers, nannies and cleaners. Youth in Konergino is not delayed: school graduates travel around to study and work in other places. The depressive state of the village illustrates the situation with the traditional fisheries that the conergins were famous for.
"Sea hunting fishery we have no. According to the capitalist rules, it is not profitable, "says Puya. - Beverifers closed, and fur fishery quickly forgotten. In the 90s, the production of the fur in Konergino collapsed. " Only reindeer herding remained: in Soviet times, until the middle of zero, while Roman Abramovich remained at the post of governor of the Chukotka JSC, it was successful here.
51 reindeer breeders operate in Konergino, of which 34 are in Brigades in Tundra. According to FUI, revenge revenues are extremely low. "This is an unprofitable industry, there is not enough money for salary. The state covers the lack of funds so that the salary is higher than the subsistence minimum, it is equal to 13 thousand. The reindeer herding economy, which consists of employees, pays them about 12.5 thousand. The state pays down to 20 thousand so that the reindeer herds do not die with the hunger, "the Puya complains.
To the question, why it is impossible to pay more, PUE responds that the cost of venison production in different farms varies from 500 to 700 rubles per kilogram. And the wholesale prices for beef and pork, which will be taken from "from the mainland", start up from 200 rubles. Selling meat on 800-900 rubles Chukchi cannot and are forced to set the price at the level of 300 rubles - at a loss. "There is no point in the capitalist development of this industry," says Puya. - But this is the last thing left in national villages. "
Evgeny Kaipanau, 36-year-old Chukchi, born in Lorino in the family of the most respected Kitoboy. Lorino (in Chukchi - "Liauren") translates from Chukotka as "found becoming". The settlement stands on the banks of the Mishgmen's lip of Bering Sea. A few hundred kilometers are the American Islands of Kruzenshtern and St. Lawrence; Alaska is also very close. But before Anadyr, the planes fly every two weeks - and even if the weather is good. Lorino is covered with north hits, so there are more windless days than in neighboring villages. True, despite the relatively good weather conditions, in the 90s, almost all Russian residents from Lorino left, and since then only Chukchi live there - about 1,500 people.
Houses in Lorino are the swollen wooden structures with slave walls and faded paint. In the center of the village, there are several cottages built by Turkish workers - heat-insulated buildings with cold water, which is considered a privilege in Lorin (if it will use cold water in conventional pipes, then in winter it will freeze). Hot water in the whole settlement is there, because the local boiler room works all year round. But there are no hospitals and polyclinics here - for several years of people have been sent for medical care by sanitary aviation or on all-terrain vehicles.
Lorino is known for Morzochchain fishery. Not in vain in 2008, the documentary film "Kitoboby", who received a prize of Teffi. Hunting for the marine beast for locals is still an important occupation. Kitobi not only feed the family or earn money, renting meat into the local community of Zverbokov, - they are also honored the traditions of the ancestors.
Since childhood, Kaipanau knew how to kill walruses, fish and whale, walk in the tundra. But after school, he went to Anadyr to learn first to the artist, and then on the choreographer. Until 2005, he, living in Lorino, often traveled on tour to Anadyr or Moscow - to speak with national ensembles. Due to the permanent connectors, the change of climate and flights Kaipanau decided to finally move to Moscow. There he married his daughter - nine months. "I strive to put your creativity and culture," says Evgeny. "Although before her seemed to her a lot, especially when she found out, in what conditions my people live." I and daughter vaccinate traditions and customs, for example, showing national clothes. I want her to know that she is hereditary chukchi. "
Eugene now rarely appears on Chukotka: Tours and represents the culture of Chukchi around the world together with his nomad ensemble. In the ethnopark near Moscow, the Ethnopark "Nomad", where Kaipanau works, he conducts thematic excursions and shows the documentary films about Chukotka, including Vladimir PUI.
But life in the distance from his homeland does not prevent him from knowing many things taking place in Lorino: his mother remained there, she works in the city administration. So, he is confident that the youth stretches to those traditions that are losing in the rest of the country's regions. "Culture, language, hunting skill. Youth in Chukotka, including young people and from our village, learns to extract whales. We have people living with this constantly, "says Kaipanau.
In the summer season, Chukchi hunted whales and walrus, in winter - on seal. Hued with harpunov, knives and copies. Whale and walrus got all together, and seals - one. Chukchi caught fish with nets from whale and deer tendons or leather belts, saccines and rivy. In winter - in the hole, in the summer - from the shore or with kayaks. In addition, before the beginning of the XIX century, with a bow, copies and traps hunted on bears and wolves, rams and salts, wolves, foxes and sands. Waterfowl to the game was killed by a violent gun (pain) and darts with a throwing plate. From the second half of the XIX century, the guns began to use, and then - firearm whaling weapons.
Products that will be taken from the mainland, stand in the village of huge money. "Golden eggs are brought by 200 rubles. I am generally silent about grapes, "adds Kaipanau. Prices reflect the sad socio-economic situation in Lorino. Places where you can show professionalism and university skills, in the settlement there is little. "But the position of the people in principle is normal, - immediately clarifies the interlocutor. "After the arrival of Abramovich (from 2001 to 2008), it became much better: there were more jobs, rebuilt at home, established the Feldsher-obstetric items." Kaipanau remembers how his familiar kitobi "arrived, took the engine boats for free for free and left the governor." "Now live and enjoy," he says. The federal authorities, according to him, also help Chukcham, but not very active.
Kaipanau has a dream. He wants to create educational ethnic centers on Chukotka, where indigenous peoples could re-recognize their culture: build kayaks and yarangi, embroider, sing, dance.
"In an ethnopark, many visitors consider Chukchi with an uneducated and backward people; They think they do not wash and constantly say "however." I even sometimes declare that I am not a real Chukch. But we are real people. "
Every morning, a 45-year-old resident of the village of Lareniki Natalia (asked not to point her surname) wakes up at 8 am to go to a local school. She is a wakter and a technical worker.
Lyrenics, where Natalya lives for 28 years, are located in the Providen city district of Chukotka, on the bank of the Bering Sea. The first Eskimo settlement here appeared about three thousand years ago, and the residues of the housing of the ancient people still find the rest of the village in the vicinity of the village. In the 60s of the last century, Chukchi joined indigenous residents. Therefore, the names of the village exist two: with the Ektossky, it is translated as the "Sun Valley", but from Chukotka - "Stony Area".
The lilacs are surrounded by hills, and get it difficult to get here, especially in winter - only a snowmobile or helicopter. From spring by autumn, sea vessels come here. From above the village looks like a box with multi-colored candies: green, blue and red cottages, building administration, mail, kindergarten and ambulatory. Previously, there were many dilapidated wooden houses in the lilacs, but a lot has changed, says Natalia, with the arrival of Abramovich. "My husband and I lived before in the house with furnace heating, I had to wash the dishes on the street. Then Valera fell ill with tuberculosis, and his attending physician helped us to sing a new cottage for our illness. Now we have a renovation. "
Clothing and food
Chukchi men wore the kitchenette from double deer skins and the same pants. Turta from the Camus with the soles of the Nerpure Skin, they were tightened to Chii - dog skins stockings. The cap of the double fawn was fought in front with a long-haired Wolverine fur, which is not fatal from the respiration of a person with what frost, and the fur mittens were worn on the raw straps, which were drawn into the sleeves. The shepherd was as if in a safeandre. Clothing on women fell into the body, below his knees it was tied, forming something like pants. They put it over her head. On top of the woman wore a wide fur shirt with a hood, which was put on her special occasions like holidays or swelkels.
The shepherd has always had to take care of the livestock of deer, so the livestock rods and families were fed in the summer as a vegetarian, and if the deer ate, then completely, right up to horns and hoofs. The meat preferred boiled, but often ate and raw: she simply did not have time for cooking in herd. The settled Chukchi was fed by meat of walrus, which were previously killed in huge quantities.
How do you live in lilacs?
According to Natalia - ok. The unemployed in the village is now about 30 people. In the summer they collect mushrooms and berries, and in the winter they catch the fish that they sell or change to other products. Natalia's husband receives a pension of 15,700 rubles, while the subsistence minimum here is 15,000. "I will work without part-time, this month I get about 30,000. We are undoubtedly living average, but something I do not feel that salary rises," - Makes a woman, remembering the cucumbers delivered in the lilac for 600 rubles per kilogram.
Natalia's sister works by the Watch method on the "Dome". This is a gold-bearing deposit, one of the largest in the Far East, is 450 km from Anadyr. Since 2011, a 100% stake in the Dome owns the Canadian company KINROSS GOLD (ours not to such a small one).
"The sister earlier worked there the maid, and now gives the masks of the miners who descend into the mines. They have a gym there, and the billiard room! They pay in rubles (the average salary on the "dome" 50,000 rubles - DV) is transferred to a bank card, "says Natalia.
A woman knows a little about mining, salary and investment in the region, but often repeats: "" Dome "helps us." The fact is that the Canadian company owning the field, in 2009 created a social development fund, he allocates money for socially significant projects. At least a third of the budget is on supporting the indigenous small peoples of the Autonomous Okrug. For example, the "dome" helped publish the Chukchi language dictionary, opened courses of indigenous languages and built school in lilacs for 65 children and a garden for 32.
"My Valera also received a grant," says Natalia. - Two years ago, "Dome" allocated 1.5 million rubles for a huge 20-ton freezer. After all, the kitobi beast will achieve meat - spoil. And now this camera saves. For the remaining money, the husband with colleagues bought tools for the construction of kayaks. "
Natalia, Chukchi and a hereditary reindeer belode, believes that national culture is now being revived. It says that every Tuesday and Friday in the local rural club held rehearsals of the Ensemble "Northern Light"; Courses of Chukotka and other languages (though, in the District Center - Anadyr) are open; Competitions like the Governor's Cup or regatta in the Barents Sea. "And this year, our ensemble is invited to the Grand Event - the International Festival! Five people will fly to the dance program. It will all be on Alaska, that will pay flight and accommodation, "says Woman. She admits that the Russian state supports national culture, but the "dome" it mentions much more often. The domestic foundation, which would be engaged in financing the peoples of Chukotka, Natalia does not know.
Another key question is health care. The representative of the association of small indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East (AMCNSS and the Arf Committee) of Nina Weisalov, says in Chukotka, as in other northern regions. But, according to the available information, the national villages are closing the tubedispeurs. Many cancer. The existing health care system ensured the identification, observation and treatment of patients from among small peoples, which was enshrined by law. Unfortunately, today such a scheme does not work. On the question of the closure of tubidispeans, the authorities do not respond, but only report that hospitals, medical ambulatory and medical and obstetric items have been preserved in every area and town of Chukotka.
In Russian society there is a stereotype: the people of Chukchi cut off after the "white man" came to the territory of Chukotka - that is, from the beginning of the last century. Chukchi never used alcohol, in their body is not produced by an enzyme splitting alcohol - and because of this, the effect of alcohol on their health is more pernicious than other peoples. But according to Evgenia Kaipanau, the level of the problem is heard too much. "With alcohol [in Chukchi], everything, as elsewhere. But they drink less than anywhere else, "he says. At the same time, Kaipanau says, Chukchi did not really have an enzyme, splitting alcohol. "Now, although the enzyme has developed, the people do not drink anyway as legends are found," Cucca summarizes.
The view of Kaipanau supports the Doctor of Medical Sciences GNICP Irina Nerjorovskaya, one of the authors of the report "Mortality and the proportion of those who died in a cost-acting age from the causes associated with alcohol (drugs), them and IBC from all deceased at the age of 15-72 years old." According to Rosstat, the document is stated in the document, the highest mortality rate on the causes associated with alcohol is indeed in the Chukchi AO - 268 people per 100 thousand. But these data, emphasizes the natives, belong to the entire population of the district. "Yes, the indigenous population of those territories - Chukchi, but not only they live there," she explains. In addition, according to Nerbogo, Chukotka stands in all the mortality rates higher than the remaining regions - and this is not only alcohol mortality, but also other external reasons. "To say that exactly Chukchi died precisely from alcohol now it is impossible, this is the system. First, if people do not want to show the cause of death associated with alcohol in the death of their deceased relative, it will not be exhibited. Secondly, the overwhelming number of deaths occur at home. And there, death certificates are often filled with a district doctor or even paramedic, because of what other reasons may be indicated in the documents - it is easier to write "
Finally, another serious problem of the region, according to Wisalova, is the relationship of industrial companies with an indigenous local population. "People come, as conquerors, disturbing the world and peace of locals. I think that there must be a regulation on the interaction of companies and peoples, "she says.
Language and religion
Chukchi, living in the tundra, called themselves "Chavchu" (deer). Those who lived on the shore - "Ankalyn" (Pomor). There is a general self-sizing of the people - Looravetlan (real person), but it did not fit. 50 years ago, approximately 11 thousand people spoke in Chukchi language. Now their number is reduced every year. The reason is simple: in Soviet times, writing and school appeared, but at the same time the policy of destroying the entire national one was held. The separation from parents and life in boarding schools forced Chukotka children less and less to know their native language.
Chukchi has long believed that the world is divided into upper, medium and lower. At the same time, the upper world ("cloudy earth") inhabited by the "Upper People" (in Chukchi-Gyrgarmkyn), or the "People's People" (Rargyn-Ramkyn), and the Supreme Deity of Chukchi does not play a serious role. Chukchi believed that their soul was immortal, believed in reincarnation, they were common with shamanism. The shamans could be both men and women, but the shamans of the "transformed gender" were considered especially strong in Chukchi - men who spent the owners, and women adopted by clothes, classes and male habits.
All conclusions will take time and Chukchi themselves.
If you think that you live in no comfortable environment, remember the reindeer herds of the Far North. They lead a nomadic lifestyle, live in Yarangi, steadyly endure the extreme cold, prepare food on the fire and eat crude fish. Sometimes urbanists are becoming interesting how these people manage to survive, bring up children and solve household problems, which sometimes even in civilized conditions can be put in a dead end. We found out in detail about it and are ready to share with you some interesting facts.
Olenevod in Warm Malice
Where the northern peoples live
The reindeer herders lead a nomadic lifestyle, they constantly move from place to place, looking for pastures for deer. Therefore, housing is adapted for a nomadic lifestyle. Komi, Khanty, Nenets, Enzi live in the plagots, and Chukchi, Koryaki, Evenks, Yukagira in Yarangi. These dwellings have a lot in common and differ only in the form: Chum Triangular and High, and Yaranga is rounded and more squat. And the plague, and the yargi is, in fact, tents that are easily installed and are also easily transferred from place to place. They are made of long straight logs, thawed with tarpaulin and warm skin. In the dome, leave the hole through which the smoke from the hearth leaves. Entrance to the dwelling housing the skin.
Northern deer - this is the life of the peoples of the Far North
Dog saves from frost thick undercoil
Plague, Yarangi: What is inside?
The heart of the northern dwelling is a hearth that is used for heating air and cooking. The temperature in the plague does not fall below 15-20 degrees Celsius. In summer, the floor is covered with mats, and in winter, deer skins. The room is illuminated by a fat lamp that gives enough heat and light. There is no furniture here, except that the lowest table, yes shop. Reindeering and their families sleep on the skins, which are laid out overnight, and in the morning they are removed to the side.
Residents of the Far North next to Chum
Bed of deer skins
What eating Olenevoda is eating
Nenets have special preferences in food. They feed, mainly fish and deer. Fish is cooking, fry, extinguished, baked, prepare Stroganin from her. Meat is eaten in cheese and thermally processed form. When the deer is clogged, they drink fresh blood, filling the body with missing vitamins and microelements. Milk in food do not use, as well as cooked dishes. Many dishes are eating without salt. Drink very hot tea.
The interior of Yarangi, typical of the districts of the North
Sani, on which reindeer breeders transport their simple skarb
How to wash Northerners
It takes almost four hours to the melting of snow and heated, and in the tundra it is very difficult in the tundra, since local vegetation is represented by rare caly dwarf trees. The fuel is enough only to heat the air in Yange and cook tea. Therefore, in winter, the reindeer herdes "wash" a very exotic way: they sit by the fire and rub the skin with a deer or seal with fat, and when it melts and mixes with mud, remove it with special bone scrapers.
Indigenous peoples of the North in traditional clothes
In the extreme north can not do without four-legged assistants
How to go to the toilet in the north
There are no toilets for distant cold tundra. They cope with the need on the street, digging in the ground or in the snow a small hole. Long warm Malitsa, stitched from deer skins, perfectly protects legs and other bare parts of the body from ice wind and frost. Before sitting over the hole, people carefully look around: is there any deer nearby. The poor animals lack salts, so they eat yellow snow with greed. Most often, they run on snow "delicacy", and if you do not drive them a loud cry, you can easily knock down a person with legs.
When the peoples of the North will handle the need in the tundra, then not predators fear, and deer
Animals lack salts and they eaten yellow snow with greed
How do children give birth
Ries of reindeer herders give birth at home, cope without doctors and midwives. During childbirth, they are helping the nearest relatives. Husbands at this time are maintained in the fire in the focus, snowing snow, provide seven reserves of fabrics and fur. In the maternity hospital, a woman is going only if Kochish is located next to the usual settlement. In severe births in Tundra, a doctor can fly to the helicopter, who, if necessary, take the feminine to the medical center.
Wives of reindeer herders give birth to houses, away from civilization
This woman lived in the area of the Far North all life
Ries of reindeer herders give birth as many times as they send the main women's goddess, the mistress of Yarangi and the patronage of Maja Pooch. Instead of diapers for newborns, kids use a special kind of moss. If, the hell is born, the child is born, the reindeer herds say that the dead ancestors are not allowed for this light, which they see the transition to the world of living.
How to be treated from diseases
If someone from the household fell ill, the inhabitants of the tundra do not rush to the hospital. The nearest medical institution, at least 100-150 kilometers, so they prefer to be treated with hot tea and herbal tinctures. Furuncools they treat compresses from raw deer kurdyuk, with ripples apply a hare or squirrel skirts, with ulcerative stomatitis, lubricate the mucous membranes of bearish bile, sick ears are treated with diatlas. From headache to redness, pinch the skin or rubbing the blood copper coin. In the treatment of many chronic diseases, bloodletting is practiced. Some northerners use acupressure.As the reindeer herds of the Far North survive without a soul, toilet and other benefits of civilization